Topics: Nigeria - Wikipedia
The Federal Republic of Nigeria / n aɪ ˈ dʒ ɪər i ə / ( listen ) , commonly referred to as Nigeria , is a federal republic in West Africa , bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north. Its coast in the south lies on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean. It comprises 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory , where the capital , Abuja is located. Nigeria is officially a democratic secular country. 
The name Nigeria was taken from the Niger River running through the country. This name was coined in the late 19th century by British journalist Flora Shaw , who later married Lord Lugard , a British colonial administrator. The origin of the name Niger , which originally applied only to the middle reaches of the Niger River, is uncertain. The word is likely an alteration of the Tuareg name egerew n-iger ewen used by inhabitants along the middle reaches of the river around Timbuktu prior to 19th-century European colonialism.  
The Nok civilisation of Northern Nigeria flourished between 500 BC and AD 200, producing life-sized terracotta figures which are some of the earliest known sculptures in Sub-Saharan Africa.     Further north, the cities Kano and Katsina have a recorded history dating to around 999 AD. Hausa kingdoms and the Kanem-Bornu Empire prospered as trade posts between North and West Africa.