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Dresden ( German pronunciation: [ˈdʁeːsdn̩] ( listen ) ; Czech : Drážďany , Polish : Drezno ) is the capital city  and, after Leipzig , the second-largest city  of the Free State of Saxony in Germany. It is situated in a valley on the River Elbe , near the border with the Czech Republic.
Although Dresden is a relatively recent city of Germanic origin followed by settlement of Slavic people ,  the area had been settled in the Neolithic era by Linear Pottery culture tribes ca. 7500 BC.  Dresden's founding and early growth is associated with the eastward expansion of Germanic peoples ,  mining in the nearby Ore Mountains , and the establishment of the Margraviate of Meissen. Its name etymologically derives from Old Sorbian Drežďany , meaning people of the forest. Dresden later evolved into the capital of Saxony.
Around the late 12th century, a Slavic settlement called Drežďany  had developed on the southern bank. Another settlement existed on the northern bank, but its Slavic name is unknown. It was known as Antiqua Dresdin by 1350, and later as Altendresden,   both literally "old Dresden". Dietrich, Margrave of Meissen , chose Dresden as his interim residence in 1206, as documented in a record calling the place "Civitas Dresdene".