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Multan ( Punjabi and Urdu : مُلتان ; pronunciation ( help · info ) ), is a Pakistani city located in Punjab province. Located on the banks of the Chenab River , Multan is Pakistan's 5th most populous city,  and is the premier cultural and economic centre of southern Punjab.
Multan's history stretches deep into antiquity. The ancient city was site of the renowned Multan Sun Temple , and was besieged by Alexander the Great during the Mallian Campaign.  Multan was one of the most important trading centres of medieval Islamic India,  and attracted a multitude of Sufi mystics in the 11th and 12th centuries, earning the city the nickname City of Saints. The city, along with the nearby city of Uch , is renowned for its large collection of Sufi shrines dating from that era.
The origin of Multan's name is unclear. It has been postulated that Multan derives its name from the Sanskrit word for the pre-Islamic Hindu Multan Sun Temple , called Mulasthana.    Hukm Chand in the 19th century suggested that the city was named after an ancient Hindu tribe that was named Mul.